Uji Efek Antipiretik Ekstrak Air Umbi Bengkuang (Pachyrhizus erosus) pada Mencit (Mus musculus) Model Hiperpireksia

Nysa Ro Aina Zulfa, Herri S. Sastramihardja, Miranti Kania Dewi

Abstract


Abstrak
Demam atau hiperpireksia adalah karakteristik dari suatu penyakit yang ditandai dengan peningkatan suhu tubuh di atas normal. Demam terjadi karena pirogen endogen seperti prostaglandin. Prostaglandin bekerja pada pusat termoregulasi hipotalamus sehingga terjadi peningkatan produksi panas. Bengkuang (Pachyrhizus erosus) mengandung senyawa flavonoid yang memiliki efek antipiretik dengan cara menghambat kerja enzim cycloocygenase 3 (COX-3) di hipotalamus sehingga menyebabkan penurunan suhu tubuh. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efek antipiretik ekstrak air umbi bengkuang pada mencit yang mengalami demam. Metode penelitian ini adalah eksperimental. Penelitian ini menggunakan 25 ekor mencit jantan galur Swiss Webster yang terbagi  dalam lima kelompok, kelompok kontrol negatif (akuades 0,5 ml/20 gBB/kali), kontrol positif (parasetamol 1,3 mg/20 gBB/kali), dosis 1 (ekstrak 48,51 mg/20 gBB/kali), dosis 2 (ekstrak 97,02 mg/20 gBB/kali), dan dosis 3 (ekstrak 145,6 mg/20 gBB/kali). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak air umbi bengkuang memiliki efek antipiretik pada mencit model hiperpireksia. Dosis 145,6 mg/20 gBB/kali memberikan efek antipiretik yang paling efektif dengan mula kerja 30 menit dan durasi kerja 90 menit. Efek antipiretik ekstrak air umbi bengkuang disebabkan oleh senyawa flavonoid yang menghambat pembentukan prostaglandin dengan cara menghambat kerja enzim COX-3 di hipotalamus.

Abstract
Fever or hyperpyrexia is characteristic of a disease characterized by an elevated body temperature above normal. Fever occurs due to the presence of endogenous pyrogens such as prostaglandins. Prostaglandins work at the hypothalamus thermoregulation center increasing heat production. Bengkuang (Pachyrhizus erosus) contains flavonoid compounds that have antipyretic effects by inhibiting the action of cyclooxygenase 3 (COX-3) enzymes in the hypothalamus causing a decrease in body temperature. This study was conducted to determine the antipyretic effect of yam bean water extract in mice that have a fever. This research method is experimental. This study used 25 male Swiss Webster mice divided into five groups, negative control group (0,5 ml/20 gBW/day), positive control (paracetamol 1.3 mg/20 gBW/times), dose 1 (extract 48,51 mg/20 gBW/times), dose 2 (extract 97.02 mg/20 gBW/times), and dose 3 (extract 145.6 mg/20 gBW/times). The results showed that yam bean water extract had an antipyretic effect on a mouse model of hyperpyrexia. Dose 145.6 mg/20 gBB/times gives the most effective antipyretic effect with 30 minutes working start and 90 minutes working duration. The antipyretic effect of yam bean water extract caused by flavonoid compound which inhibits prostaglandin formation by inhibiting COX-3 enzyme activity in the hypothalamus.


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